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Posts Tagged ‘cryptography

6 Months of Security Links #2011

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I’m a regular curator of daily links, and like to give overviews of my collection of curated links and posts. This is partly as there are some good sources and articles in here and as I am working on a research project which I started based on a number of books I read.

I’m sure you’ll find something interesting in the items below – there are some gems in the list – and I dare to hazard the guess you might learn something you wanted to know. :)

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Written by Daniël W. Crompton (webhat)

July 15, 2011 at 4:10 pm

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This year’s book reviews #2010

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Programming Hands

As always I read far more in 2010 than I blogged about, and most of the books I did blog about were treasures. I hope I inspired you to read at least one of them. And you have certainly noticed that I have added them all to the bookstore to make it easier for you to find out more about them.

I’ve had this title in my head for about a week now, the title is natur…

I’m reading Bruce Sterling‘s Islands in the Net – Amazon de…

As followers of mine will know I love xkcd, and he has some gems such as this…

I read Amsterdam: The Brief Life of a City by Geert Mak in English rather tha…

I’ve seen the film more than a dozen times, but I had yet to read Star …

Brian Jacques‘s book Outcast of Redwallfollows Veil the ferret who is r…

The Odessa File, by Frederick Forsyth, is another of the books I am keeping s…

Brian Jacques‘s book Martin the Warrior is another book from the Redwal…

I found The Moon’s a Balloon, by David Niven, in a box of old books. I …

Mossflower by Brian Jacques is probably my favourite of the Redwall series, t…

Timothy Leary once told us to “Turn on, tune in, drop out“, and a…

For some reason I had the book Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA, by Br…

After having seen many films and read many books I expected that Hitler: The …

One of my first real American comics was Thor, I really liked it. Sadly it re…

I like Ontologies, Taxonomies and Folksonomies. I’m currently reading W…

I read Mario Puzo famed book The Godfather after having seen the movie a numb…

As I previously said I bought Anathem at the same time I bought Cryptonomicon…

I borrowed a number of books from an aunt of mine, who reviewed these books f…

I was standing in a secondhand book store with my father, and we wandered rou…

As an early Christmas gift my father gave me vouchers he didn’t want to…

The Snake is the first book I have read by John Godey, it was recommended to …

In the company I work for they are introducing the Agile FrameWork, in the fo…

Image source: Honou

Just Finished Reading “Cryptonomicon” #books

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Cryptonomicon - Neal Stephenson

As an early Christmas gift my father gave me vouchers he didn’t want to get him and myself some books we would enjoy. I went out and bought Anathem – which I will discuss in a following blog – and Cryptonomicon. He was very happy with my choice, we had both enjoyed and , and would be sure to enjoy these.

The book starts just before the age of modern cryptography, in a time when computers were people who performed computations, and weaves a story of the Waterhouse clan from grandfather’s fumbled first meetings with Alan Turing, through the cracking of the Enigma code, up to the modern age of fibre optics and Van Eck phreaking. It is ranges from witty to down-right hilarious, with lines like

“War is hell, but smoking cigarettes makes it all worthwhile.”

And it covers the art of cryptography in a way that I, a geek with some knowledge of cryptography, understand.

The story itself reads like a spy novel, with as much subterfuge in the WWII periode as in the modern age, where the discovery of information by lawyers and dentists can be as bad if not worse that the discovery by Nazis. In the end the WWII characters have died leaving legacies which ripple into the future, and those left alive are left fighting an enemy much worse than the Third Reich, corporations.

I really liked Cryptonomicon.

Written by Daniël W. Crompton (webhat)

March 29, 2010 at 11:03 am

Just Finished Reading “The Code Book” #books

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I received The Code Book: The Secret History of Codes and Code-breaking as a present sometime ago. I had a love/hate relationship with cryptography and mathematics. I read this book when I got it, but re-reading it now was valuable.

It covers Fermat, Alice and Bob and goes on to quantum cryptography and quantum computing.

An interesting read.

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Written by Daniël W. Crompton (webhat)

March 30, 2009 at 7:38 pm

Predictable Initialization Vectors #security #cryptography

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I’m always amazed that people use unixtime as a unique number for anything, even unixtime in milliseconds. A request that comes in milliseconds from the next might just pass muster, but for cryptography this is just not enough!

Sorry let me start from the beginning…

Due to some restrictions at regarding SSL certificates I was forced to come up with a way to encrypt sensitive data being passed from a user’s browser to an application server. I thought it would be pretty simple to build my own Diffie-Hellman key exchange in JavaScript, which it was. Encryption on the otherhand is not my forté, so I thought I would rely on somebody else for that work. It was suprisingly difficult to find a Cipher Block Chaining implementation of Rijndael (Advanced Encryption Standard, AES) in JavaScript, so I decided to go with the Counter Mode implementation I found over at AES Advanced Encryption Standard.

Al was well, the implementation was a little tricky as I was made some mistakes in my Diffie-Hellman implementation due to the lack of Big Number support in JavaScript. Once I’d finally solved that with a dive into arrays of numbers I was suddenly presented with strange behavior. All the encrypted blocks in a sequence seemed to start with the same block, 4 bytes which were similar in all messages and then 4 bytes which were identical. There was nothing wrong with the implementation. The SharedKey was always different – I was using an 64 bit key for testing – and I could decrypt the messages fine on both sides. I was a little baffled.

So when I was reading about the new SHA3 on Bruce Schneier‘s blog and thought that it could have something to do with the Salt, as SSHA or Salted SHA. The Salt is almost identical to the Initialization Vector or nonce used in Cryptography. So I examined the JavaScript code and saw this:

var counterBlock = new Array(blockSize);
var nonce = (new Date()).getTime(); // timestamp: milliseconds
var nonceSec = Math.floor(nonce/1000);
var nonceMs = nonce%1000;
for (var i=0; i<4; i++) counterBlock[i] = (nonceSec >>> i*8) & 0xff;
for (var i=0; i<4; i++) counterBlock[i+4] = nonceMs & 0xff;
var ctrTxt = '';
for (var i=0; i<8; i++) ctrTxt += String.fromCharCode(counterBlock[i]);

Needless to say I was surprised, also because initially I hadn’t even noticed that the last 4 bytes of the 8 byte sequence were identical. So I double checked the rest of the code and saw that indeed the IV was prepended to the encrypted block. Shocking was the fact that unixtime was being used to create the nonce. Unix time is the number seconds since the January 1st, 1970 in UTC, which means that the current time and date can be extracted. For each second that passes only one is added to the total, which means that the first portion is predictable as long as you know what date and time it is in UTC. The second part can be guessed or even pre-calculated in a rainbow table, there are after all only 86400 seconds in a day. What’s worse is that the number of milliseconds, is always less than 1000, so we can look it up in the same rainbow table we created for the seconds of the day. That means that this entire IV is predicable, as long as we can read a calendar and tell the time, or have a computer to do it for us.

So I took out my trusty editor and plugged the hole like this:

function generateIV() {
var counterBlock = new Array(16);
var nonce = Math.floor(Math.random()*18446744073709551616)
var nonceSec = Math.floor(nonce/4294967296);
var nonceMs = nonce%4294967296;
// encode nonce with seconds in 1st 4 bytes, and (repeated) ms part filling 2nd 4 bytes
for (var i=0; i<4; i++) counterBlock[i] = (nonceSec >>> i*8) & 0xff;
for (var i=0; i<4; i++) counterBlock[i+4] = (nonceMs >>> i*8) & 0xff;

var ctrTxt = ”;
for (var i=0; i<8; i++) ctrTxt += String.fromCharCode(counterBlock[i]);

return ctrTxt;
}

I then I used the scatter chart option in Open Flash Chart 2 to create a distribution chart to verify that the distribution of x = nonceSec and y = nonceMs was random, which as far as I could determine it was. Had the person who wrote this had done the same he would have seen how predictable his nonce was and could have fixed it.

So what did you do today?

UPDATE: I had a discussion with Chris Veness, the author of the library I referred to above, and he said the following:

There is no suggestion that the nonce needs to be unpredictable (though it must be unique), hence your concerns are, to the best of my understanding, entirely misplaced.

I feel much more comfortable following SP800-38A to the letter (as I believe I have done with the ‘second approach’), rather than second-guessing what might be improvements, as I have noticed that for a non-expert, alterations which intuitively appear to improve cryptographic strength can potentially have exactly the reverse effect.

Further, while your change results in a low likelihood of compromising uniqueness, it is clearly breaching this cardinal requirement of the specification (“A procedure should be established to *ensure* the uniqueness of the message nonces”).

I trust you will update your blog so that your readers won’t get drawn into a similar confusion.

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Written by Daniël W. Crompton (webhat)

November 20, 2008 at 7:54 pm

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